Q.1, EXPLAIN THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME. WHICH STRATEGIES CAN BE USED TO STRENGTHEN THIS CONNECTION.
ANSWER; As a parent, you are the major provider of your child’s education from birth through adolescence. You guide the development of her character and mental health and help form the foundation from which she’ll develop lifelong attitudes and interests.
And because your home is the primary environment in which your child’s potential and personality will take shape, it’s important to make sure that you create a positive, open atmosphere that will not only support what goes on in the classroom but will also instill the desire to learn.
It is through your love and encouragement that your kids will become motivated — first to please you, and then to please themselves. This leads to self-confidence, curiosity, the enjoyment of mastering new tasks, and other healthy attitudes, all of which contribute to successful learning.
But unless you are home-schooling, you will not be the one teaching your child science or geography.
And while it’s true that all of the facts, skills, and concepts your children learn at school are influenced by what you do at home, your child’s education is equally impacted by the relationships you form with her teachers. Building an effective relationship with the teacher is a critical task, and, like you, every teacher wants to achieve this goal.
As with any relationship, mutual respect, the ability to listen, and lots of communication form the foundation.
When parents and teachers work well together, everyone benefits. Parents and teachers can provide each other with unique insight and different perspectives about the same child, culminating in a more complete understanding of that child, her abilities, strengths, and challenges.
The teacher will know much more about the curriculum and the school culture, while you know more about your child’s personality, tendencies, and family life. A successful parent-teacher partnership also shows a child that an entire team of adults is on her side.
Why What You Do at Home Is So Important at School
A positive relationship with your child is more important to her school career than your constant presence in the classroom. Because young children identify strongly with you, your attitudes, values, and innermost feelings are contagious. They become embedded in your child’s mind at the deepest levels.
If your own experience with school was miserable, you might feel anxious about your child’s school experiences. Your child will sense this, and it could hamper her ability to throw herself wholeheartedly into learning. She may feel disloyal if she allows herself to like school and works hard, even if your words are telling her to do so.
For your child’s sake, you’ll need to put the past behind you and “start over,” assuming that your child’s teachers, school, and overall experience will be good and happy. Even if you didn’t like school, the best way to help your child is to endorse her experience: Get involved, be positive, and trust her teachers. She will get the message: “School is important; I want you to engage fully.”
Make Quality Time for Your Child
It might sound obvious, but today, parents’ schedules are full to overflowing. The good news is that there are easy ways to enjoy time with your child that also support learning. You can be available during play dates, snuggle on the sofa while watching a good video together, take a nature walk in the park, make appreciative comments from time to time as your child plays, cook something yummy together, or just hang out and chat. All these things support your child’s deep belief that you know her, care about her, and would never expect her to do something that isn’t possible — such as learn in school.
Become an Active Partner in Learning
Most educators believe in parent participation in children’s education, but “participation” means different things to different teachers. To some, it might mean helping children with homework, returning notes and sending things in on time, and coming to a conference when notified to do so. But it should mean much more.
Work with the teacher to find out some ways you can contribute to the classroom, but always be sure to do it within the guidelines she’ll provide for you. By the same token, you have valuable insight about your child — no one knows her better than you — so it’s important to take initiative and communicate that knowledge to the teacher throughout the school year.
First, be sure to provide details about your child’s home life to your teacher. The most effective teachers have a fairly complete understanding of each child in their class. You can help by telling her about your child’s family life, including any recent changes (divorce, a death in the family, or illness, for example), important traditions or rituals, languages spoken at home, and other significant details unique to your child.
Currently, the manifestation of the ever-changing relationship between stakeholders can be characterized as families and schools alike being “victim(s) of sweeping cultural change” (Cutler, 2000, p. 196). Just as in the 19th Century, Cutler (2000) points out that “parents and teachers can be adversaries, allies, or advocates for each other and the cause of better education” (p. 198).
Although it seems to be recognized in America that families and schools must form strong partnerships and work together to create positive change, it seems to be a constant work in progress.
With honest communication between home and school, many schools are seeking to reform and empower the home-school relationship, therefore making communities stronger and student learning enhanced.
The relationship between home and school has grown significantly in complexity, both in the ability for stakeholders to form associations that protect their own rights and interests and in the societal changes that have made family life more complex and difficult.
The characterization of the current state of the relationship between stakeholders can be described as complex, yet with hope for reform, positive communication, and a common interest to educate children in the best way possible.
As stated by Henderson, Mapp, Johnson & Davies (2007), it is important “to build a vital, trusting, productive community of people who enjoy learning from each other and can work through their differences in the Ask about ways to share your culture — food, music, photos, and traditions — with the class.
Not only will this help strengthen your child’s self-esteem, it will also enrich the learning experience for the entire class and foster an appreciation of diversity. Between the ages of 3 and 8, kids are beginning to deal with a world bigger than the family, and they become keenly aware of every difference between themselves and their peers.
Plan to have a family discussion each week. Try to pick a topic that emerges from your child’s experiences at school. The more you familiarize yourself with the daily routines and activities at preschool, the more you’ll be able to encourage this type of conversation. You can even extend the idea into an art project or create a family “book club” where everyone reads something relating to this theme.
Get the entire family involved. As often as possible, try to participate in field trips and classroom events such as potlucks, story parties, art shows, and class celebrations. Include grandparents, siblings, caregivers, and family friends. Your child will be delighted.
For parents and teachers alike, the goal is to play active roles in your child’s life and to work towards forming a real bond. The child’s best interest is always served when she has lots of people rooting for her and all the pieces of her life fit together. A strong home-school connection will set the stage for a child who will grow up with a love for learning
Q.2, DESCRIBE THE SCOPE OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT . EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT.
ANSWER; This scope of school management is very vast. It includes everything regarding the efficient functioning of the educational institution, securing the greatest benefit to the greatest number through the adoption of practical measures.
It interprets and clarifies the functions and the activities of an educational program in fruitful relationships and harmonizes their mutual action. It ensures sound planning, good direction, and efficient and systematic execution.
Educational management refers to the administration of the education system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategize, and implement structures to execute an education system.
 Education is the equipping of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, habits, and attitudes with learning experiences. The education system is an ecosystem of professionals in educational institutions, such as government ministries, unions, statutory boards, agencies, and schools.
The education system consists of political heads, principals, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, administrative personnel, and other educational professionals working together to enrich and enhance. At all levels of the educational ecosystem, management is required; management involves the planning, organizing, implementation, review, evaluation, and integration of an institution.
Educational management is related to Henri Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management.. Educational Management is a goal-oriented activity. It involves group efforts and organized work and performance towards the attainment of certain pre-determined goals in an educational institution.
With an active coordinated effort, we can achieve the goals of the organization, by efficiently utilizing the material and human resources in the educational environment.
Whether under the banner of community participation, decentralization, or teacher empowerment, school-based management has been on the educational reform agenda for decades. Now it is gaining support as a means to improve school performance. But the specific process by which SBM is supposed to lead to performance improvement has received little attention and efforts to achieve that goal have been hit-and-miss.
So far, there is scant evidence that schools get better just because decisions are made by those closest to the classroom. That deceptively simple change in how schools are managed and governed, as attractive as it is to many teachers, principals and parents, turns out to be rather meaningless unless it is part of a focused, even passionate, quest for improvement. School-based decision-making is one aspect of systemic school reform–an approach to improving schools that also includes changing instruction, curriculum, the institutional web that surrounds schools to achieve an integrated focus on the outcomes of education.
In fact, the absence of a clearly defined set of instructional goals tends to slow the progress of even the governance changes SBM is supposed to deliver. The changes tend to occur on paper only, without engaging the support or enthusiasm of those who must carry them out. This also has been seen in the private sector, which has increasingly adopted the tenets of decentralized decision-making to invigorate production or improve service delivery. When decentralized management was thought of solely as a way to help employees feel better about their jobs, it gained little support from managers or workers. But when employees and managers were asked to rethink their relationships and their involvement to achieve certain business-related goals, such as improving quality or raising productivity, organizational change was far more likely.
The bottom line is that school-based management is not an end in itself, although research indicates that it can help foster an improved school culture and higher-quality decisions. School-based management is, however, a potentially valuable tool for engaging the talents and enthusiasm of far more of a school’s stakeholders than traditional, top-down governance systems. Moreover, once in place, SBM holds the promise of enabling schools to better address students’ needs. This promise is more likely, however, if a “high-involvement” model of SBM is followed. This model envisions teachers and principals being trained and empowered to make decisions related to management and performance; having access to information to inform such decisions; and being rewarded for their accomplishments.
This issue of CPRE Finance Briefs summarizes research that investigated how school-based management can be implemented so that it is more than just a catch-phrase. Making the transition to SBM is neither simple nor quick. Neither is it possible for SBM to succeed simply by giving schools more power over such things as budgets, personnel, and curriculum. In addition to power, schools need hefty portions of three other commodities that private-sector research has found to be essential for making good and productive decisions:
Knowledge of the organization so that employees can improve it. Teachers and other stakeholders need technical knowledge, such as how to employ new approaches to teaching, business knowledge, such as how to develop a budget, and knowledge of interpersonal and problem-solving skills so they can apply what they know to achieve school goals.
Information about student performance and comparisons with other schools, about whether parents and community leaders are satisfied with the school, and about the resources available, either monetary or other.
Rewards acknowledge the extra effort SBM requires as well as to recognize improvements.
Our conclusions about SBM are based on an in-depth study of 27 schools in three U. S. districts (Jefferson County, Kentucky; Prince William County, Virginia; and San Diego, California), one Canadian district (Edmonton, Canada), and one Australian state (Victoria) that have been operating under the SBM umbrella for about four years, although some have been working at it much longer. We interviewed nearly 200 individuals from school board members, superintendents, and associate superintendents in district offices to principals, teachers, parents, and students in local schools.