Slightly more than half the schools studied could be characterized as “actively restructuring,” meaning that reform efforts had successfully produced changes in curriculum and instructional practices. The other half were struggling, meaning that they were going through the motions of SBM but little change had occurred.
The two categories of schools differed on each of the four previously mentioned dimensions. These differences offer guidance for tapping the potential of SBM.
Questions of power–how much is transferred to the school and who wields it–are among the central SBM policy issues. Most SBM schools establish a site council but the composition, role and leadership of councils vary.
Some school districts dictate that structure, as in San Diego; others leave it up to the schools themselves, but hold the principal accountable for ensuring that all parties are given the opportunity to contribute, such as in Prince William County.
In Jefferson County, schools had leeway within a set of guidelines generated collaboratively by the district and the teacher association.
Interestingly, councils established by the schools themselves and those structured by district order differed little.
Most had administrative, teacher, parent, and classified employee representatives, who were elected by their respective constituencies. Edmonton schools did not require site councils. Instead, principals devised their own, often informal, ways of seeking teacher input. The parents’ perspective was usually solicited through separate parent advisory councils.
Most of the actively restructuring schools had some means of dispersing power, usually through subcommittees. The subcommittees not only engage more of the faculty, either as members or leaders but also reduced the workload on individual teachers and broadened the commitment to reform.
Parents often were active members of subcommittees, too, although leadership positions were held usually by educators. Parents were most concerned about issues related to the school environment (e.g., safety, uniforms) and tended to view areas like curriculum and instruction and staff development as professional issues to be handled by educators.
In Australia, subcommittees had control over a small budget, which helped facilitate the implementation of reform efforts. The subcommittees, set up to address such topics as curriculum, assessment, and professional development, also helped focus participants’ energy on specific tasks rather than on abstractions such as “culture” or “empowerment.”
The net effect was that in actively restructuring schools there was lots of communication and reflective dialogue around specific projects.
The struggling schools got bogged down in establishing power relationships. They tended to concentrate power in one faculty group, leading to an atmosphere of “us” and “them.” One struggling school spent almost a year developing a policy manual that specified who had power and under what conditions.
Other research also has found that at schools dominated by adversarial politics, council discussions more often were related to power conflicts rather than to instructional issues.
Making good use of the power accorded schools under SBM also depends on superintendents and principals.
Superintendents helped by making central offices service-oriented: “The schools want helpers, not tellers.” In Edmonton, schools had the bulk of money for professional development and maintenance and could purchase those services outside the district.
Central office departments offering such services became school-oriented as they had to sell their services to schools in order to stay in existence.
District office restructuring and total quality management efforts in San Diego and Prince William County promoted the notion of the schools as the customers of the district departments. Superintendents also worked to develop a districtwide culture of risk-taking.
The superintendent in Jefferson County encouraged schools “to go out on a limb” and supported them by offering extra money for professional development to all schools that voted to adopt SBM.
It is clear from actively restructuring schools that SBM does not mean that principals no longer have a role to play. Rather, they play a different role.
We saw evidence in some schools that principals were moving away from being the instructional leader, while in others the principal concentrated on conveying a strong instructional vision. In all restructuring schools, principals were moving toward the role of facilitator and manager of change.
Principals at actively restructuring schools worked to broaden and sustain the school’s commitment to reform by getting various stakeholders involved in decision-making teams.
Principals in those schools motivated staff, created a team feeling on campus, and often provided a vision for the school. Successful principals also shielded teachers from issues in which they had little interest or expertise so that they could concentrate on teaching.
Principals in struggling schools were at odds with their staff and were accused of failing to support them or, in the extreme, of vetoing or ignoring site council decisions.
Teachers at those schools often were not willing to accept guidance and leadership from the principal or else they feared too much interference from the parent participants. Furthermore, principals in these schools often loaded up the council with trivial issues.
Q.3, EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCES DESCRIBE THE USE OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN SCHOOL EDUCATION IN 21TH CENTURY.
ANSWER. Human resources are the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, industry, or economy. A narrower concept is human capital, the knowledge which the individuals embody. Similar terms include manpower, labor, personnel, associates or simply people.
A human-resources department (HR department) of an organization performs human resource management, overseeing various aspects of employment, such as compliance with labor law and employment standards, administration of employee benefits, organizing of employees files with the required documents for future reference, and some aspects of recruitment and employee offboarding
A 21st-century company has to be employee-centric in order to stay relevant and push the boundaries of the industry. After all, it’s great people that make a great company.
Talent has become the hottest commodity in the global marketplace, and individuals have more power to knowingly influence the culture of a company than ever before. This has resulted in a need transformation of corporate human resources teams who are now forced to navigate new technologies, manage employee expectations, and ensure that the organization has a productive and happy workforce.
The human resources department of the 21st century will favor specialization over a generalized, one-size-fits-all approach to workforce management. The responsibilities that fall onto the plate of a Chief Human Resources Officer and his or her small “jack-of-all-trades” team will now be spread out across a functionally diverse stack of specialists.
Companies are thankfully beginning to move away from the dry print-out review process that dictated how we measure and assess employee performance, happiness, and engagement. Organizations are also realizing that a two-way conversation between leadership and teams is far more engaging than a one-way dialogue.
Thanks to employee engagement software, leadership and teams can now have an ongoing, dynamic dialogue around workforce performance. Companies no longer have to just rely on 3, 6, or 12-month review sessions to assess the performance and happiness of the workforce.
Just like social media needs a community manager, your human resources team will require a dedicated Employee Engagement Manager who will be the link between employees and leadership. This person will be tasked with drawing up frequent surveys to gather feedback and assess the health and happiness of the workforce.
An Employee Engagement Manager will not only manage the technology required to communicate across the company but will also craft the approach to internal engagement. He or she will be the bridge between the workforce and the other four roles below by devising unique ways for communicating workforce initiatives, as well as facilitating an interactive way for people across the organization to voice their opinions through frequent townhalls or internal meetups.
Dynamic companies constantly level up the workforce through training and skills development. Technology will change, processes will change; and more importantly, customers will change.
A Director of Learning will be a crucial role in the ongoing education of the workforce. Company training programs are notoriously known for being unengaging, uninspiring, and drag on already busy employees. This role will require someone who understands the adult learning process and will be key for designing voluntary or mandatory training programs.
He or she will be responsible for bridging virtual and in-person training sessions and exercises; produce content that will be consumed by program participants; champion the program across the organization, and ensure that tangible behavioral changes take place across the company.
Studies prove that a diverse workforce results in a prosperous organization. Company success is based on the cultivation of men and women from all backgrounds–whether that’s gender, race, or skillset.
Diversity Officers will be responsible for ensuring that the workforce is made up of talented individuals from many walks of life. It’s not enough to just hire a diverse workforce, because of much the work takes place inside the organization post-hire. The Diversity Officer will work closely work with the Director of Learning and Employee Engagement Manager to craft inclusion training programs that will foster understanding between many different types of people and teams.
It’s important to point out that the title “Diversity Officer” suggests some form of internal police or watchdog. This should change because companies should not feel they are being threatened into cultivating a diverse workforce. Rather, the role should aim to encourage the benefits (both economic and psychologic) of a workforce that’s made of a diverse group of people
Q.4, DEFINE LEADERSHIP DESCRIBES LEADERSHIP STYLE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS PLANNING.
ANSWER; What is leadership? A simple definition is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act toward achieving a common goal. In a business setting, this can mean directing workers and colleagues with a strategy to meet the company’s needs.
This leadership definition captures the essentials of being able and prepared to inspire others. Effective leadership is based upon ideas (whether original or borrowed), but won’t happen unless those ideas can be communicated to others in a way that engages them enough to act as the leader wants them to act.
Put even more simply, the leader is the inspiration for and director of the action. They are the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and leadership skills to make others want to follow their direction.
In business, leadership is linked to performance, and any leadership definition has to take that into account. While it’s not solely about profit, those who are viewed as effective leaders are the ones who increase their company’s bottom lines. If an individual in a leadership role does not meet profit expectations set by boards, higher management, or shareholders, they may be terminated.1
The terms “leadership” and “management” tend to be used interchangeably. Management refers to a company’s management structure as its leadership, or to individuals who are actually managers as the “leaders” of various management teams.
Leadership, however, requires traits that extend beyond management duties. To be effective, a leader certainly has to manage the resources at their disposal. But leadership also involves communicating, inspiring, and supervising—just to name three more of the primary skills a leader has to have to be successful.2
While there are people who seem to be naturally endowed with more leadership abilities than others, anyone can learn to become a leader by improving particular skills. History is full of people who, while having no previous leadership experience, have stepped to the fore in crisis situations and persuaded others to follow their suggested course of action. They possessed traits and qualities that helped them to step into roles of leadership.
Writing in Forbes magazine, Erika Andersen, author of “Leading So People Will Follow,” says that, like most things, leadership capability falls along a bell curve. So the fact is that most folks who start out with a modicum of innate leadership capability can actually become very good, even great leaders.3
Steve Jobs is a classic example of someone who learned to lead despite not being born a natural leader. After starting Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak in 1976, he was fired by the board of directors in 1985 when the company was facing intense competition and internal disagreement about the future direction of the business. Later, after founding Pixar Animation Studios and NeXT Computer, he was eventually rehired by Apple in 1997 as CEO and went on to develop the revolutionary iPod, iPhone, and many other products.
By all accounts, Steve Jobs was a mercurial genius who, early in his career, routinely yelled at employees, co-workers, partners, and vendors. According to some ex-employees of Apple and NeXT, he was intolerant of anything he viewed as a failure, and his foul-mouthed tirades were the stuff of legend. He apparently believed in brutal honesty and considered other people’s feelings irrelevant. He did not conduct formal reviews with employees and was sparing with praise for a job well done.4
However, according to biographies, such as “Steve Jobs” by Walter Isaacson, as Jobs matured his management style began to shift. He started to moderate some of his more negative traits and showed more empathy toward others, realizing that people had limits. Upon his return to Apple, he was forced to cut staff and was quoted as expressing concern for families of employees who were laid off.5
Jobs died on October 5, 2011, at the age of 56.6 Even after his death, his reputation and his company live on. An October 2018 article in Forbes magazine stated, “Today, precisely seven years after [Jobs’] passing, his name is still synonymous with the visionary, genius, innovator, and icon.”7 He could not have accomplished much of what he did—and Apple probably wouldn’t be around today—had Jobs not developed into a leader
A leadership style is a leader’s method of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Various authors have proposed identifying many different leadership styles as exhibited by leaders in the political, business, or other fields. Studies on leadership style are conducted[by whom?] in the military field, expressing an approach that stresses a holistic view of leadership, including how a leader’s physical presence determines how others perceive that leader. The factors of physical presence in this context include military bearing, physical fitness, confidence, and resilience. The leader’s intellectual capacity helps to conceptualize solutions and to acquire knowledge to do the job. A leader’s conceptual abilities apply agility, judgment, innovation, interpersonal tact, and domain knowledge. Domain knowledge encompasses tactical and technical knowledge as well as cultural and geopolitical awareness.
The question of what makes a good leader—in other words, what are leadership skills—is widely debated. It is clear that the ability to lead effectively relies on a number of key skills, but also that different leaders have very different characteristics and styles.
There is, in fact, no one right way to lead in all circumstances, and one of the main characteristics of good leaders is their flexibility and ability to adapt to changing circumstances. Leadership skills are highly sought after by employers as they involve dealing with people in such a way as to motivate, enthuse and build respect.
Here at SkillsYouNeed, you’ll find lots of information that can help you to understand and develop your leadership potential.
Whether or not leadership itself can be taught, there is no question that there are a number of core skills that most good leaders have. These skills can be learned like any other
Q.5, WHAT IS THE EDUCATION PLANNING. DISCUSS FACTORS AFFECTING EDUCATIONAL PLANNING.
ANSWER; Educational planning strives to research, develop, implement and advance policies, programs, and reforms within educational institutions. Educational planners might work at the local, national or international level to advance or improve education.
While educational planning might center on pre-school and K-12 education, you could also work in postsecondary education as well. As an educational planner, you could work within educational institutions, government agencies, and private or not-for-profit organizations.
Educational planners typically hold graduate degrees. You might also consider becoming a licensed teacher or earning additional degrees in education. Administrators within schools or districts are commonly involved in educational planning.
Educational planning is the process of preparing for your post-secondary education. Effective educational planning enables you to make a smooth transition from high school to college, further technical education, or military service. A good educational plan will provide you and your family with a map of your future education and career goals
The definition of educational planning varies by each student’s needs but one of the most important decisions you will make in this process is deciding which college or technical school to attend in preparation for a career. You must decide which school will provide the best training for the profession you have chosen. Other important issues are whether the school you are interested in is accredited by a recognized accrediting agency and if the school will be a good fit for your personal interests and talents
1. Philosophies of Educational Planning and Resource Management Prepared by: Geraldine S. Cachero 141 107 Educational Planning and Resource Management
2. Contents • Curriculum Planning • Allocation and Management of Resources • Monitoring and Evaluation of Frameworks • Strategic Human Resources Management • Conflict Management • Risk Management • Community Participation • Strategic Management • School Budgeting • Conclusion
3. Curriculum Planning •
This refers to the creation of a curriculum. The curriculum is the subject matter planned and taught for the engagement of learners in the learning process. • The goal of this aspect is to help learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, alter attitudes, appreciations, and values.
• The relevance of this aspect to educational planning and resource management is that it is a tool to help to organize various elements of a curriculum, such as the core objectives, subject, unit definitions, activities, assessments, and resources.
4. Allocation and Management of Resources •
This aspect is the process of assigning and managing resources in a manner that supports the organization’s educational goals. It includes managing tangible resources like the hardware or materials and its softer assets such as human capital.
• The main objective of this aspect is to balance competing needs and priorities and to determine the most effective course of action in order to maximize the effective use of limited resources.
• With the help of an effective resource allocation plan, it becomes easier to effectively manage resources. This could also help an administrator or manager to identify the critical activities and to complete the project in time.
5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Frameworks
• This is the process of identifying and illustrating relationships among relevant organizational individuals and other stakeholders or factors that may influence the educational plan and the successful achievement of educational goals and objectives.
• The main goal of this aspect is to increase understanding of the organization’s goals and objectives, defines the relationship between factors key to implementation, and articulates the internal and external elements that could affect the organization’s success.
• A well-thought-out monitoring and evaluation of framework are relevant to educational planning and resource management because they can assist greatly with thinking through strategies, objectives, and planned activities, and whether they are indeed the most appropriate ones to implement.
6. Strategic Human Resources Management
• This is the practice of attracting, developing, rewarding, and retaining employees for the benefit of both the employees as individuals and the organization as a whole.
• The main objective of this aspect is to create strategies that align with the educational goals of the organization. • This aspect is important because the results reflect and support the goals of the rest of the organization.
It is seen as a partner in educational planning success because it utilizes the talent and opportunity within the human resources management to make other departments stronger and effective.
7. Conflict Management
• This is the practice of being able to identify and handle conflicts sensibly, fairly, and efficiently. This is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict
. • The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in an organizational setting.
• Proper training in conflict management is significant to educational planning and resource management because it helps administrators have a thorough knowledge of the nature and source of conflict to enable them to effectively identify, evaluate and diagnose conflict in order to choose the best method and most effective techniques to deal with conflict.
8. The video below is an example of how to deal with conflict
9. Risk Management • This aspect is defined as the identification, analysis, assessment, and prioritization of risks to the achievement of objectives. • This is concerned with the direction of purposeful activities towards the achievement of individual or organizational goals. • Risk management is relevant to educational planning and resource management because it is an integral component of good management and governance. This aspect will enable the organization to minimize losses and maximize opportunities.
10. Community Participation
• Community participation is the involvement of the community in educational planning and resource management as a strategy to improve educational access and quality.
• The main objective of this aspect is to nurture transparency of information and a culture of mutual respect and by pursuing improvement of school by sharing vision, process, and results.
• Consistent community participation at all levels of the school helps students earn higher grades, attend school more regularly, stay in school longer, and enroll in higher-level programs.
11. Strategic Management
• This aspect involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by top management on behalf of the administrators.
• The main objective of this aspect is to provide overall direction to the organization and to involve the specification of the organization’s objectives; development of policies and plans designed to achieve these objectives, and; allocation of resources to implement the plans.
• The importance of this aspect is that it helps the transformation of school management for improving basic education that leads to create and strengthen different ways of doing to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of educational activity.
12. School Budgeting
• This refers to the systems under which schools are expected to plan their own operations and develop their own budgets within the limits of a total allocation approved by the school board.
• The main purpose of this aspect is to involve the individuals who are responsible for implementing decisions in actually making those decisions. It believes that efforts at educational improvement will be more long-lasting and effective if carried out by people who feel a sense of ownership and responsibility for the process.
• This aspect is important because schools can more easily acquire the supplies and equipment that they believe are necessary to the programs they have decided to offer. Further, having planned those programs and set priorities, schools will use the available resources more effectively.
13. Conclusion “It is not enough to just do your best or work hard. You must know what to work on.” – Dr. W. Edwards Deming The various aspects presented here interact with each other. Thus, knowledge in educational planning and resource management is incomplete without these aspects. Just like the quotation above, before we act for something, we must know our vision, mission, and goals. We must always remember that improving the quality of education is not just a one-time effort.
14. Conclusion As a future administrator and with the help of these aspects, I must be able to institute leadership to improve all job functions. It is my job to help the other stakeholders and their systems do a better job. I am also expected to remove fear and encourage clear communication so that everyone may work effectively. There must be no barriers between departments and people must work as a team so that we can foresee and prevent problems during the organization’s development.