Q.1 Explain the functions and components of the central processing unit.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of the following features −
- CPU is considered the brain of the computer.
- CPU performs all types of data processing operations.
- It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program).
- It controls the operation of all parts of the computer.
CPU itself has following three components.
- Memory or Storage Unit
- Control Unit
- ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)
Memory or Storage Unit
This unit can store instructions, data, and intermediate results. This unit supplies information to other units of the computer when needed. It is also known as internal storage unit or the main memory or the primary storage or Random Access Memory (RAM).
Its size affects speed, power, and capability. Primary memory and secondary memory are two types of memories in the computer. Functions of the memory unit are −
- It stores all the data and the instructions required for processing.
- It stores intermediate results of processing.
- It stores the final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.
- All inputs and outputs are transmitted through the main memory.
This unit controls the operations of all parts of the computer but does not carry out any actual data processing operations.
Functions of this unit are −
- It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.
- It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer.
- It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them, and directs the operation of the computer.
- It communicates with Input/Output devices for transfer of data or results from storage.
- It does not process or store data.
Components of Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit has the following features –
- CPU carries out all forms of data processing tasks.
- It saves information, intermediate results and instructions.
- CPU monitors the functionality of all computer components.
CPU has the following 3 components
- Memory or storage unit
- Control unit
- Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Memory or Storage Unit
The memory unit stores all the instructions and data. This unit provides data to other units of the computer if necessary.
It is sometimes referred to as the internal storage unit or main memory, or the primary storage or RAM (Random Access Memory).
- All the data and instructions required for processing are stored in the memory unit.
- Intermediate results of any data processing are stored in the memory unit.
- Once the final results are processed before the results are released to output devices, the memory unit stores it.
- The main memory transfers all the inputs and outputs.
This unit monitors all computing processes but does not execute actual data processing.
Following are the functions of the Control unit –
- It regulates the transfer of data and instructions among other computer units.
- All the units of the computer is managed and coordinated by the control unit.
- It interacts with input and output devices for data transfer.
- The control unit gets the memory instructions, interprets the instructions and controls the computer operations.
Arithmetic Logic Unit
This unit is the most important part that does all the calculations and makes the decisions.
This computer processing unit (CPU) is the fundamental building block of the computer. Modern CPUs contain highly complicated and efficient ALUs.
Modern CPUs have a control unit (CU) in addition to ALUs. ALUs consists of following subsections –
- Arithmetic Section
- Logic Section
The arithmetic section performs all the mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This section handles all the complex calculations.
The logic section’s purpose is to carry out logical activities such as data comparison, collection, matching and merging.
Q.2 Define and explain communication process with examples.
Communications is fundamental to the existence and survival of humans as well as to an organization. It is a process of creating and sharing ideas, information, views, facts, feelings, etc. among the people to reach a common understanding. Communication is the key to the Directing function of management.
Communications is a continuous process which mainly involves three elements viz. sender, message, and receiver. The elements involved in the communication process are explained below in detail:
The sender or the communicator generates the message and conveys it to the receiver. He is the source and the one who starts the communication
It is the idea, information, view, fact, feeling, etc. that is generated by the sender and is then intended to be communicated further.
The message generated by the sender is encoded symbolically such as in the form of words, pictures, gestures, etc. before it is being conveyed.
It is the manner in which the encoded message is transmitted. The message may be transmitted orally or in writing. The medium of communication includes telephone, internet, post, fax, e-mail, etc. The choice of medium is decided by the sender.
It is the process of converting the symbols encoded by the sender. After decoding the message is received by the receiver.
He is the person who is last in the chain and for whom the message was sent by the sender. Once the receiver receives the message and understands it in proper perspective and acts according to the message, only then the purpose of communication is successful.
Once the receiver confirms to the sender that he has received the message and understood it, the process of communication is complete.
It refers to any obstruction that is caused by the sender, message or receiver during the process of communication. For example, bad telephone connection, faulty encoding, faulty decoding, inattentive receiver, poor understanding of message due to prejudice or inappropriate gestures, etc.
Importance of Communication
1. The Basis of Co-ordination
The manager explains to the employees the organizational goals, modes of their achievement and also the interpersonal relationships amongst them. This provides coordination between various employees and also departments. Thus, communications act as a basis for coordination in the organization.
2. Fluent Working
A manager coordinates the human and physical elements of an organization to run it smoothly and efficiently. This coordination is not possible without proper communication.
3. The Basis of Decision Making
Proper communication provides information to the manager that is useful for decision making. No decisions could be taken in the absence of information. Thus, communication is the basis for taking the right decisions.
4. Increases Managerial Efficiency
The manager conveys the targets and issues instructions and allocates jobs to the subordinates. All of these aspects involve communication. Thus, communication is essential for the quick and effective performance of the managers and the entire organization.
5. Increases Cooperation and Organizational Peace
The two-way communication process promotes co-operation and mutual understanding amongst the workers and also between them and the management. This leads to less friction and thus leads to industrial peace in the factory and efficient operations.
6. Boosts Morale of the Employees
Good communication helps the workers to adjust to the physical and social aspect of work. It also improves good human relations in the industry. An efficient system of communication enables the management to motivate, influence and satisfy the subordinates which in turn boosts their morale and keeps them motivated.
Types of Communication
1. Formal Communication
Formal communications are the one which flows through the official channels designed in the organizational chart. It may take place between a superior and a subordinate, a subordinate and a superior or among the same cadre employees or managers. These communications can be oral or in writing and are generally recorded and filed in the office.
Formal communication may be further classified as Vertical communication and Horizontal communication.
Vertical Communications as the name suggests flows vertically upwards or downwards through formal channels. Upward communication refers to the flow of communication from a subordinate to a superior whereas downward communication flows from a superior to a subordinate.
Application for grant of leave, submission of a progress report, request for loans etc. are some of the examples of upward communication. Sending notice to employees to attend a meeting, delegating work to the subordinates, informing them about the company policies, etc. are some examples of downward communication.
Horizontal or lateral communication takes place between one division and another. For example, a production manager may contact the finance manager to discuss the delivery of raw material or its purchase.
Types of communication networks in formal communication:
- Single chain:In this type of network communications flows from every superior to his subordinate through a single chain.
- Wheel:In this network, all subordinates under one superior communicate through him only. They are not allowed to talk among themselves.
- Circular:In this type of network, the communication moves in a circle. Each person is able to communicate with his adjoining two persons only.
- Free flow:In this network, each person can communicate with any other person freely. There is no restriction.
- Inverted V:In this type of network, a subordinate is allowed to communicate with his immediate superior as well as his superior’s superior also. However, in the latter case, only ordained communication takes place.
2. Informal Communication
Any communication that takes place without following the formal channels of communication is said to be informal communication. The Informal communication is often referred to as the ‘grapevine’ as it spreads throughout the organization and in all directions without any regard to the levels of authority.
The informal communication spreads rapidly, often gets distorted and it is very difficult to detect the source of such communication. It also leads to rumors which are not true. People’s behavior is often affected by the rumors and informal discussions which sometimes may hamper the work environment.
However, sometimes these channels may be helpful as they carry information rapidly and, therefore, may be useful to the manager at times. Informal channels are also used by the managers to transmit information in order to know the reactions of his/her subordinates.
Types of Grapevine network:
- Single strand: In this network, each person communicates with the other in a sequence.
- Gossip network: In this type of network, each person communicates with all other persons on a non-selective basis.
- Probability network: In this network, the individual communicates randomly with other individuals.
- Cluster Network: In this network, the individual communicates with only those people whom he trusts. Out of these four types of networks, the Cluster network is the most popular in organizations.
Barriers to Communication
The communication barriers may prevent communication or carry incorrect meaning due to which misunderstandings may be created. Therefore, it is essential for a manager to identify such barriers and take appropriate measures to overcome them. The barriers to communication in organizations can be broadly grouped as follows:
1. Semantic Barriers
These are concerned with the problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding of a message into words or impressions. Normally, such barriers result due to use of wrong words, faulty translations, different interpretations, etc.
For example, a manager has to communicate with workers who have no knowledge of the English language and on the other side, he is not well conversant with the Hindi language. Here, language is a barrier to communication as the manager may not be able to communicate properly with the workers.
2. Psychological Barriers
Emotional or psychological factors also act as barriers to communication. The state of mind of both sender and receiver of communication reflects in effective communication. A worried person cannot communicate properly and an angry recipient cannot understand the message properly.
Thus, at the time of communication, both the sender and the receiver need to be psychologically sound. Also, they should trust each other. If they do not believe each other, they cannot understand each other’s message in its original sense.
3. Organizational Barriers
The factors related to organizational structure, rules and regulations authority relationships, etc. may sometimes act as barriers to effective communication. In an organization with a highly centralized pattern, people may not be encouraged to have free communication. Also, rigid rules and regulations and cumbersome procedures may also become a hurdle to communication.
4. Personal Barriers
The personal factors of both sender and receiver may act as a barrier to effective communication. If a superior thinks that a particular communication may adversely affect his authority, he may suppress such communication.
Also, if the superiors do not have confidence in the competency of their subordinates, they may not ask for their advice. The subordinates may not be willing to offer useful suggestions in the absence of any reward or appreciation for a good suggestion.
Q.3 Explain the use of ICT tools for organizing and storing teaching learning resources.
Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools contribute to high quality lessons since they have potential to increase students’ motivation, connect students to many information sources, support active in-class and out-class learning environments, and let instructors to allocate more time for facilitation.
Therefore, use of ICT tools in teaching and learning process becomes a great area of research for many educators. These technologies increase students’ motivation, self-confidence and self esteem to learn.
Additionally, new technologies usually encourage independent and active learning, as a result, the students feel more responsible for their own learning. Considerable number of research on the contribution of ICT in modernizing learning and teaching, triggers attempts to incorporate these technologies in order to benefit in terms of quality of education, flexibility, access, and its cost.
Therefore, this study aims to:
(1) reveal to what extend instructors use ICT tools in their courses and determine what ICT tools they utilize
(2) assess the contribution of ICT to learning and teaching both from students and instructors’ perspectives.
As a qualitative case study research, semi-structured interviews were carried with participants. The participants were purposively selected since the researchers needed experienced instructors on these issues.
The students participated in the study voluntarily. All interview sessions were type recorded and the data was transcribed verbatim. Both students’ and instructors’ responses indicated that there is a common belief that when these tools are employed, students’ success will increase. Students verified that the use of educational technologies makes them to feel more successful.
Instructors stated that such tools crates more organized learning and alert instructor to search for best tools for students, and let course materials accessible whenever students need. One of the students stated that when instructor uses such tools, learning environments become more stimulating when compared to traditional settings.
Similarly, instructors stated that although there are number of factors impeding the whole utilization of ICT tools, they agree that traditional teaching is old fashioned and ineffective in these days. Based on the responses obtained, we can state that instructors lacks in explaining and evaluating carefully the impact of ICT tools that may enhance or support students’ in-depth learning.
Their statements are generally anecdotal rather than data driven. Also, lack of motivation among faculty members was perceived as obstacle to fully adopt ICT. Our work-in-progress attempts will address many other issues and direct valuable recommendations for further studies.
Schools use a diverse set of ICT tools to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.(6) In some contexts, ICT has also become integral to the teaching-learning interaction, through such approaches as replacing chalkboards with interactive digital whiteboards, using students’ own smartphones or other devices for learning during class time, and the “flipped classroom” model where students watch lectures at home on the computer and use classroom time for more interactive exercises.
When teachers are digitally literate and trained to use ICT, these approaches can lead to higher order thinking skills, provide creative and individualized options for students to express their understandings, and leave students better prepared to deal with ongoing technological change in society and the workplace.(18)
ICT issues planners must consider include: considering the total cost-benefit equation, supplying and maintaining the requisite infrastructure, and ensuring investments are matched with teacher support and other policies aimed at effective ICT use.(16)